Different Variations in Toxicology

Several branches in toxicology deal with specific issues related to the substances and affects on specific individuals. Toxic genomics is defined as the study of the structure and function of a specific genome. It is used to study the adverse effects of drugs in certain criteria as part of model drug systems in order to reach conclusions about toxic risk to patients. Environmental toxicology deals with the harmful effects of various agents in air, water and landscape that might cause toxic effects against organisms. The field of food toxicology is deepening its root since 1900s. Food and food components are assessed using the science of toxicology that undergirds the food safety policy and regulation throughout the globe. The authorities are advancing towards the search of more true methodology of safety factors to no effects level. In vitro methods are used widely for assessing, screening and ranking chemicals and have also been taken into account for risk assessment purposes in the case of food additives. However, the range of food-associated compounds to in vitro toxicology is much broader; it comprises not only natural ingredients, but also compounds formed endogenously after exposure, authorized chemicals like residues, supplements, and chemicals. A major promise of in vitro systems is to obtain mechanism-derived information that is considered pivotal for adequate risk assessment. Most chemicals display a classic dose response curve, as the initial dose does not affect anyway, but the bigger dose has a hampering affect. The relation between the dose and affect of the medicine with respect to a vulnerable species or organism is called toxicology. The specialized study of endocrine disruptors, however, disputes the fact that more exposure means higher risk. There are several types of experiments that determine the effects and symptoms of poisoning. Animal testing is the common method of identifying the potential risks of a certain toxic chemical. The results and scope of studies vary, as a single test took over $6.5 million and lasted for five years, involving 24,000 mice. The basic duties of toxicologists are to determine the effects of chemicals on organisms and their surroundings. Several projects revolve around assessing the effects of toxic pollutants and the reaction of the human immune system to the respective pollutants. Chemical Products is a scientific discipline relating the study of structure and mechanism relevant to the toxic effects of chemical agents, and encompasses technology advances in research related to chemical aspects of toxicology. Research in this area is strongly multidisciplinary, comprising computational chemistry and synthetic chemistry, proteomics and metabolomics, drug discovery, drug metabolism and mechanisms of action, bioinformatics, bioanalytical chemistry, chemical biology, and molecular epidemiology.