Pentaerythritol(Cas No.115-77-5) is an organic compound with the formula C5H12O4. This white, crystalline polyol with the neopentane backbone is a versatile building block for the preparation of many poly-functionalized compounds such as the explosive PETN and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate. Derivatives of pentaerythritol are components of alkyd resins, varnishes, PVC stabilizers, tall oil esters, and olefin antioxidants. With the social development and the improvement of people’s living standards, the increasing requirements of environmental protection, the original halogen flame retardant will produce toxic gases. Heavy smoke no longer meet today’s environmental requirements. It is an urgent need for a combustion process. Low toxicity, low smoke, does not produce a corrosive gas efficient flame retardants, which greatly promoted the development of halogen-free ones. Intumescent flame retardant (IFR) coatings based on a new type of fire-retardant technology developed in the mid-1970s, is currently a hot area research and development, with its halogen-free, low smoke , low toxicity, and lower to add the amount of popular attention. Containing such a flame retardant polymer when heated, the surface can generate layer bulky and the closed structure of the carbon foam layer. This layer having a flame-retardant, oxygen barrier, Eliminatesmoke, and the anti-dripping quadruple efficacy. Development intumescent flame retardant material complies with the requirements of environmental protection and fire-retardant sustainable development strategy is a promising new type of flame retardants, present domestic and foreign intumescent flame retardant technology has been a significant development. It has been used for general heating does not form carbon polymers, such as polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE), and the like. Intumescent flame retardant mainly by three major carbon source, acid source, gas source, pentaerythritol and its derivatives, due to its high carbon content, multi-functional groups in a wide range of applications in the IFR system. Human safety and environmental protection made flame retardant material development to enter a new era. The development of these materials in the 21st century should be based on flame-retardant, low smoke, non-toxic ,more focus on the ecological impact. Intumescent ones use pentaerythritol and its derivatives as the carbon source sum up these advantages, but there are some problems. These require the majority of the fire-retardant technology workers to redouble their efforts to constantly improve intumescent flame retardant to the progressive realization of the engineering requirements. Based on pentaerythritol intumescent flame retardant, its future trends are: (1)high thermal stability and to meet the needs of the polymer high-temperature processing of forming; (2) consider from the polarity similar principles compatible, should make surface treatment for IFR, make it easy to disperse. When burned, can form uniform and compact expansion carbonaceous layer coating on the substrate surface.(3) IFR contain acid source, carbon source, and foaming source.